Where are New Green Cities and How Can They Curb Asian Greenhouse Gas Emissions?

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Masdar-HQ1.jpg
Masdar Headquarters, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

In my previous post, I highlighted how growing Asian urbanization is expected to contribute more than half of the world's growth in greenhouse gases over the next 20 years. Now I will review what's being attempted in Asian cities and elsewhere in order to positively alter that disturbing forecast.

The US and other Western nations are by no means immune from culpability in global climate change, since the US and Europe have contributed most of the existing excess greenhouse gases (GHGs) in our global climate over the last 100 years.

co2_us_vs_china-400.jpg 

Because of that history, the onus is upon more developed parts of world, including North America, Europe and parts of Asia, to help plan and develop models for new cities in Asia. These models need to take into account climate change, local culture, the latest IT and communications technologies, and more.

New cities or districts must not be only be low- or zero-carbon, they must also address climate change adaptation, which in practical terms means designing for water and food security and natural disaster risk management.

What are the best global models that Asia should draw upon? Masdar, in the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi), is one good model, though its small expected total population (50,000) and unique design can't scale up to Asian-sized growth requirements.     

Masdar is piloting scores of new designs and technologies that reduce energy use, particularly in passive energy reduction (cooling and solar) and PV solar. Masdar also reduces water use with information system-linked leak-detecting sensors and by recycling dew. This desert-located site even recycles ambient moisture in the indoor air, which includes evaporated human sweat. 

Besides the techno-wizardry, Masdar offers economic sustainability, through a viable financing "eco-system": it has created a tax free-foreign enterprise zone that has drawn in support from General Electric, Credit Suisse and the United Nations' Clean Development Mechanism.

South Korea's Songdo International Business District is planned to reduce energy use 30 percent in every building through the use of double building skins combined with sophisticated information technology and communications control systems. Songdo is on a scale to which China can relate, with 60,000 residents and 300,000 workers expected by completion in 2015.

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Songdo rises in South Korea (New York Times photo)

Some Chinese green new city false starts (so far) have included Dongtan and Qingdao Eco-Blocks, both of which were approved or studied by the national and local governments but have so far failed to be greenlighted.

While Dongtan was to be on a scale of 20,000 inhabitants to begin and was mainly to be powered by renewable energy, it had plans of increasing to 500,000 by 2030. That still wasn't necessarily big enough for the needs of China, which may add 800 million or more people to its cities over the next 30-40 years, many of them in new cities or new city zones of 500,000 to 5 million. Because of local corruption, ground for Dongtan was never broken despite ambitious plans and international project participation from ARUP Engineering.

Qingdao Eco-Blocks, with 2,000 to 100,000 housing units and mixed-use, transit-oriented development, meanwhile, did have modular applicability to Chinese new city development. The Eco-Blocks project, though, did not get slated into Phase 1 of the city's development pipeline, according to Harrison Fraker, retired professor from UC Berkeley's Institute of the Environment. While at Berkeley, Fraker and the Institute helped devise the plan for the resource (water, waste, energy) "self-sufficient" city.

It seems the Eco-Blocks were too complex at their present stage of planning to fit into China's massive national new city construction mechanism, which is constrained by the need for speed. The Eco-Blocks are now being considered as a prototype for NASA Ames research, Fraker said.

qingdao.jpg  

The immediate fate of Tianjin Eco-City has greater potential in China. A Chinese and Singaporean cooperative has been holding design competitions for a large section of Tianjin, the third largest municipality in China, which has an overall population of more than 8 million.     
Besides cultivating financing, the Tianjin Eco-City is attempting to develop sophisticated software that can model the use of materials, energy, water, land, transportation and other resources, in addition to carbon and waste outputs.

Other noteworthy green community models beyond Asia include the Kalundborg (Denmark) Eco-Industrial Park; Hammarby, Sweden; and Kronsberg, Germany.

hammarby.JPG 
Hammarby, Sweden

Kronsberg, a community of 6,600 near Hanover, addresses the critical element of local food with greenhouses using renewable energy, which can offer a large-supply of nutrition requiring less carbon than the transport-heavy global food model.

Combined with the myriad waste re-use and energy generation opportunities that can come with sustainable organic agriculture and food processing, the food element has been a significant missing element in most "eco-cities."

Kronsberg reduced its greenhouse gases by 45 percent compared to average new construction.This was accomplished through the use of advanced building insulation in concert with district heating systems, which use waste heat from municipal processes to warm water that is piped throughout the community for everyone's use. The suburban area cut overall per capita CO2 by an estimated 60 percent through transit oriented development including major bicycle infrastructure.

Reducing the life-cycle impacts of construction and infrastructure materials is another area not being well addressed by current eco-city planning and design--no large-scale pilot projects exist that precisely measure and manage life-cycle material impacts.

If new cities can combine integrated planning for better carbon management, regional food systems, life cycle material impacts, water scarcity and biological/ cultural diversity, they will be much better prepared to host the world's new majority that is headed their way. 

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2 Comments

Warren.

A few things to point out.

1) I think that there are many lessons that China can learn from small development (like the UAE one). In my current block in Shanghai, there are two buildings of 35 floors @ 8-10 flats per floor... and it is one of thousands just like it. Where a city like Shanghai, or perhaps more like Nanchang / Wuhan/ Xi'an can learn from these projects is that block by block they can reduce the overall footprint of the building, reduce material waste, improve monitoriing, and so on.

However, in China one needs to remember that after the building is built, it needs to be managed.. and this is perhaps where China needs the most help and needs to focus. In the current system, building management is not expected by investors to do more than keeping systems running and provide a contingent of "guards". There is no need for them to upgrade equipment until upkeep is more expensive than replacement... so, asking anyone to monitor, audit, and correct anything is a bit of a leap.

Second, besides the Dongtan and Qingdao project failures, I think it is also equally important to highlight the fact that there are examples like Huagnbaiyu where it was completed... but still a failure. There is this religious like belief that eco-towns (there are 30 in planning) are somehow the answer, but when you have 5 million buildings being planned, we need to shift the focus away from sexy ecotowns to the down/ dirty.

Finally, China's plans are to move 400 million more to the city by 2020. To move 1 billion more would mean the entire population would be urban. No doubt a goal, but by 2040 that is a bit of a stretch.

r
www.cleanergreenerchina.com

Does anyone know if the Anting New Town project by Fei Chun Lu (China New Town holdings) was a success or a failure? I can't find any recent information about it in english, and I wonder if it is already constructed or not. Thanks a lot in advance for your help!


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About the Author

    Warren Karlenzig
Warren
Warren Karlenzig, Common Current founder and president, has worked with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (lead co-author United Nations Shanghai Manual: A Guide to Sustainable Urban Development in the 21st Century, 2011); United Nations Center for Regional Development (training of mayors from 13 Asian nations on city sustainable economic development and technology); provinces of Guizhou and Guangdong, China (urban sustainability master planning and green city standards); the United States White House and Environmental Protection Agency (Eco-Industrial Park planning and Industrial Ecology primer); the nation of South Korea ("New Cities Green Metrics"); The European Union ("Green and Connected Cities Initiative"); the State of California ("Comprehensive Recycling Communities" and "Sustainable Community Plans"); major cities; and the world's largest corporations developing policy, strategy, financing and critical operational capacities for 20 years.

Present and recent clients include the Guangzhou Planning Agency; the Global Forum on Human Settlements; the Shanghai 2010 World Expo Bureau; the US Department of State; the Asian Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability; the David and Lucile Packard Foundation; the non-governmental organization Ecocity Builders; a major mixed-use real estate development corporation; an educational sustainability non-profit; and global corporations. Read more here.

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About this Entry

This page contains a single entry by Warren Karlenzig published on September 14, 2009 10:39 AM.

Asian City Growth: "Elephant in the Room" for Climate Change, Environmental Devastation was the previous entry in this blog.

The Advent of Smart, Green Cities in Asia and Europe Shows Leadership for Copenhagen Climate Agreement is the next entry in this blog.

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